Dog Bite Injuries and Fatalities
in the United States



Dog Bite Injuries

Dog Bite Fatalities

Risk Factors:
Breed, Victim & Place

Cost of Dog Bites

Factors that Impede Progress

Event Analysis

Prevention Strategies


1 American Pet Products Manufacturers Association: Industry Statistics and Trends, Pet
Ownership, retrieved on 2-14-06 from:

2 National estimates of non-fatal injuries treated in hospital emergency departments-United
States, 2000. MMWR 2001; 50: 340-346.

3 Ballesteros MF, Schieber RA, Gilchrist J, Holmgreen P, Annest JL. Differential ranking of
causes of fatal versus non-fatal injuries among US children. Injury Prevention 2003; 9: 173-176.

4 Gilchrist J, Gotsch K, Annest JL. Nonfatal dog bite-related injuries treated in hospital
emergency departments- United States, 2001. MMWR 2003; 52: 605-610.

5 Sacks JJ, Kresnow MJ, Houston B. Dog bites: how big a problem? Injury Prevention 1996;
2: 52-54.

6 Weiss HB, Friedman DI, Coben JH. Incidence of dog bite injuries treated in emergency
departments. JAMA 1998; 279: 51-53.

7 Sosin DM, Sacks JJ, Sattin JW. Causes of nonfatal injuries in the United States,1986.
Accident Analysis and Prevention 1992; 24: 685-687.

8 Sacks JJ, Sinclair L, Gilchrist J, Golab G, Lockwood R. Breeds of dogs involved in fatal
human attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1998. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2000; 217: 836-840.

9 Pinckney LE, Kennedy LA. Traumatic deaths from dog attacks in the United States.
Pediatrics 1982; 691: 193-196.

10 Sacks JJ, Sattin RW, Bonzo SE. Dog bite related fatalities from 1979 through 1988. JAMA 1989;
262: 1489-1492.

11 Ozanne-Smith J, Ashby K, Stathakis VJ. Dog bite and injury prevention: analysis, critical
review and research agenda. Injury Prevention 2001; 7: 321-326.

12 Gersham KA, Sacks JJ, Wright JC. Which dogs bite? A case control study of risk factors.
Pediatrics 1982; 93: 913-917.

13 American Veterinary Medical Association: Task Force on Canine Aggression and Human
Canine Interactions. A community approach to dog bite prevention. JAVMA 2001; 218:

14 Gladwell M. Troublemakers: What pit bulls can teach us about profiling. The New Yorker 2006;
81: 38-43.

15 Lockwood R. Dog bite related fatalities - United States, 1995-1996. MMWR 2000; 46: 463-466.

16 Insurance Information Institute. Hot topics & issues updates: dog bite liability. Retrieved on
2-16-06 from:

17 Quinlan KP, Sacks JJ. Hospitalizations for dog bites (letter). JAMA 1999: 281: 232-233.

18 Voelker R. Dog bites recognized as a public health problem. JAMA 1997; 277: 278-280.

19 Take the bite out of man's best friend. State Farm Times1998;3: 2.

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