Vehicular Exhaust and Air Pollution

Introduction

Individual tailpipe emissions

Transport and fate in the environment

Measuring exposures

Prevention and control of exposure

Exposure Pathway

Risk assessment

Adverse effects


Harmful Effects

Dose Response

Absorption, Metabolism and Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Organ Sites of Toxicity

Biomarkers

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Introduction

Smog is the combination of air pollutants, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. Industry, utilities and motor vehicles create the volatile and toxic compounds that when combined make smog. One source that everyone is familiar with is motor vehicles. Everyone has seen the old bus accelerate and leave a brown, odorous cloud in its wake. But the exact to health risks may not be known. The most prevalent of these is respiratory disease. Statistics show that on hot sunny days when smog levels peak there are increased hospital visits due to asthma attacks and other respiratory illness. Aside from human illness the environment is also at risk. Smog and other vehicle emissions are in part responsible for decreased visibility, acid deposits, and the possible warming of the earth’s temperature, thought to be caused by greenhouse gases.