Characteristic of the Agent

Fate and Transport

Environmental Impacts

Environmental Monitoring

Exposure Pathway

Methods for Measuring Human Exposure

Routes of Exposure

Strategies for Preventing or Controlling Exposures

Harmful Effects

Dose Response

Absorption, Distribution and Metabolism


Target Organs and Tissues

Mechanisms of Toxicity

Risk Assessment and Risk Management


5103/5104 Home

Strategies for Preventing or Controlling Exposures

  • Total Elimination of Plasticizer compounds use in products
    -Not likely due to our dependence/benefits of flexible plastics
    “Net Societal Benefit”
    -Requires Legislation for compliance
  • Substitution of less harmful substances
    -One example is using a 3 layer polypropylene in blood bags which gives the needed softening, but yet keeps the barrier protection
    Case Study XVI: Miller Children Hospital (Long Beach, CA)
    -Eliminated IV sets that contained DEHP
    -Total projected cost was $20,000 or ~$20 per patient
    -Other known substitutes (depending on the product) include silicon, polyurethane, polyethylene and nylon.
  • Reduction of quantity of phthalates used. Either:
    - reduce the amount in specific product recipes
    - reduce the total number of products with phthalates added
  • Mandate appropriate disposal of products containing phthalates
    - reduces materials being incinerated/land filled potentially
    reducing inhalation/ingestion exposures
    - public education needed
  • Possible effluent technology in industrial sector, reducing emissions
  • Bioremediation of DEHP
    -Microbes have been shown to degrade compound in weeks XII
  • Photodegradation of DEP
  • Water treatment methods approved by EPA for removing phthalates using Granular Activated Charcoal XVII
  • Using alternative sources of drinking water when your area has known levels of phthalate (DEHP) to exceed the Maximum Contaminate Level (MCL) of 6 ppb XVII
  • Respirator use in the occupational setting, reducing the intake of air pollutants. Other occupational changes include process enclosure and ventilation where phthalate fumes are shown in increased levels