Characteristic of the Agent

Fate and Transport

Environmental Impacts

Environmental Monitoring

Exposure Pathway

Routes of Exposure

Methods for Measuring Human Exposure

Strategies for Preventing or Controlling Exposures

Harmful Effects

Dose Response

Absorption, Distribution and Metabolism


Target Organs and Tissues

Mechanisms of Toxicity

Risk Assessment and Risk Management


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Environmental Monitoring

Gas chromatographic – mass spectrometric techniques can used to detect phthalates from air, water, soil, and animals/fish. I This method is utilized by most scientists and is recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The monitoring questions arise to how large of a sample to obtain, over what time length, and what were the potential sources. Finding the potential sources can be challenging due to the high mobility of the pollutant in the aqueous and atmospheric stage.

Regulations for DEHP: X
*DEHP is the most prevalent phthalate used and thus the most regulated

The Toy Manufactures of America (TMA) have stated that most manufactures of pacifier and toys have disconnected the use of the DEHP and DINP in their products. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety and Commission (CSPC) stated that project cancer risk associated with DEHP has decline greatly after the phase of out of the chemical in pacifiers. The Toy Manufactures of America voluntarily set DEHP standards to less than 3% in pacifiers and teethers.

The EPA through the Clean Water Act (CWA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulates Phthalates. Under CWA, DEHP is set on the list of chemicals for which water quality criteria have been established and enforced. The reportable quantity of 100 pounds has been created for DEHP. DEHP has mandatory reporting and record-keeping requirements by RCRA, SARA, and TSCA. Through the regulations established by SARA, threshold amounts of DEHP can be used in manufacturing and processing at a facility. In addition, manufactures, importers, and processors of DEHP must submit copies and lists of unpublished health and safety studies under TSCA to the EPA.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also regulates DEHP as an indirect food additive. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates DEHP under the Hazardous Communication Standard and as a chemical hazard in laboratories.

ACGIH established a recommended threshold limit of 5 mg/m3 while NIOSH recommends an exposure limit of 5mg/m3 for a 10-hour time weighted average (TWA) and short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 10 mg/m3. OSHA has a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m3 as an 8 hour TWA and a STEL of 10 mg/m3 for the compound.

DEHP is also regulated in drinking water under the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act. Through this regulation, the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) was set at 6 parts per billion. This level was established because this was the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove DEHP from drinking water supplies. This is the only phthalate that has an established MCL.