Pesticides in the Environment


Pesticide Transport and Fate

Monitoring in the Environment

Methods for Measuring Human Exposure to the Agent

Exposure Pathways

Strategies for Preventing and Controlling Pesticides

Harmful Effects of Alachlor

Dose Response of Alachlor

Absorption, Distribution and Metabolism

Sites of Toxicity

Biomarkers of Disease and Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Risk Assessment

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Methods for Measuring Human Exposure to the Agent

Pesticide exposure in humans can be measured in two ways, either through direct monitoring by measuring biomarkers from individuals or developing models to assess exposure.

Measuring Biomarkers

Biomarkers, or biological markers, are chemicals or metabolites that can be measured in body fluid, such as urine, blood, saliva, and other body fluids. Metabolites are chemicals that were transformed by the body from an original chemical, such as a pesticide.


While direct measurements of biomarkers can give you accurate exposure prevalence, it can be time consuming and expensive. Developing a model can be an alternative to estimate exposure. A model is a basically a mathematical equation that inputs known variables to asses exposure levels. The four main components of a model are environment, agent, host, and time. Below are the four components with examples of types of variables that may be used in the model equation:

1. Environment (partition gradient, physical area)
2. Agent (chemical properties, concentration)
3. Host (health, age, exposure pathway)
4. Time (length of exposure)

A model can more effective than measuring biomarkers, not only with less time and expense, but with greater flexibility by allowing the variables to change.