Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

Characteristics

Fate and Transport in the Environment

Exposure Pathway

Routes of Exposure

Methods for Measuring Exposure

Strategies for Preventing Exposure

Methods for Monitoring in the Environment


Harmful Effects

Dose Response

Absorption, Distribution and Metabolism

Sites of Toxicity

Biomarkers of Disease

Risk Assessment

References

5103/5104 Home

References

Bakshi, A. (2003). Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 6, 211-225.

Bernstein J.A., Bernstein I.L., Bucchini L., Goldman L.R., Hamilton R.G., Lehrer S., Rubin C., and Sampson H.A. (2003). Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8), 1114-1121.

Chen Z., Gu Y.L, Su Y., Wu p., Jiang Z., Ming X., Tian J., Pan N., and Qu L. (2003). Safety Assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato. Toxicology, 188, 297-307.

Cockburn, A. (2002). Assuring the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods: The importance of an holistic, integrative approach. Journal of Biotechnology, 98, 79-106.

Cornell University’s Genetically Engineered Organisms Public Issues Education Project (GEO-PIE). August 8, 2003.

Ewen S.W.B., and Pusztai A. (1999). Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on small rat intestine. The Lancet, 354 (9817), 1353-1354.

FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Biotechnology. (n.d.) Retrieved, October 20, 2003

Fox, S.I. (1996). Human Physiology (5th ed.). Debuque, IA: Wm. C. Brow Publishers.

Germolec, D.R., Kimber, I., Goldman, L., and Selgrade, M. (2003). Key issues for the assessment of the allergenic potential of genetically modified foods: Breakout group reports. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8), 1131-1139.

Hollingworth, R.M. The Safety of Genetically Modified Foods Produced Through Biotechnology (2002). Retrieved November 19, 2003 from Society of Toxicology website

Lewis, S.M., Collier, I.C., and Heitkemper, M.M. (1996). Medical-Surgical Nursing (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book, Inc.

Trimbrell, J. (2003). Introduction to Toxicology (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Inc.