Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)


Fate and Transport in the Environment

Exposure Pathway

Routes of Exposure

Methods for Measuring Exposure

Strategies for Preventing Exposure

Methods for Monitoring in the Environment

Harmful Effects

Dose Response

Absorption, Distribution and Metabolism

Sites of Toxicity

Biomarkers of Disease

Risk Assessment


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Bakshi, A. (2003). Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 6, 211-225.

Bernstein J.A., Bernstein I.L., Bucchini L., Goldman L.R., Hamilton R.G., Lehrer S., Rubin C., and Sampson H.A. (2003). Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8), 1114-1121.

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Cornell University’s Genetically Engineered Organisms Public Issues Education Project (GEO-PIE). August 8, 2003.

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