Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

Characteristics

Fate and Transport in the Environment

Exposure Pathway

Methods for Measuring Exposure

Strategies for Preventing Exposure

Methods for Monitoring in the Environment


Harmful Effects

Dose Response

Absorption, Distribution and Metabolism

Sites of Toxicity

Biomarkers of Disease

Risk Assessment

References

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Exposure Pathway

Humans are exposed to genetically modified organisms by the ingestion of foods containing an ingredient produced by biotechnology. It is estimated that 70% to 80 % of processed foods contain ingredients made from genetically engineered corn, soybeans or cottonseed oil.

There are approximately 40 foods that have been approved for commercial sales. Examples include:

Canola oil
Chicory
Corn
Cotton
Papaya
Potato
Rice
Soybean
Squash
Sugar beet
Tomato

Various groups have also done random testing on products to determine if the food contains genetically modified ingredients. The list below highlights a few examples.

* Frito-Lay Corn Chips
* Kellogg's Corn Flakes
* General Mills Total Corn Flakes Cereal
* Post Blueberry Morning Cereal
* Heinz 2 Baby Food
* Enfamil ProSobee Soy Formula
* Similac Isomil Soy Formula
* Nestle Carnation Alsoy Infant Formula
* Quaker Chewy Granola Bars
* Nabisco Snackwell's Granola Bars
* Ball Park Franks
* Duncan Hines Cake Mix
* Ultra Slim Fast
* Quaker Yellow Corn Meal
* Aunt Jemima Pancake Mix
* Alpo Dry Pet Food
* Gardenburger
* Boca Burger Chef Max's Favorite
* Morning Star Farms Better'n Burgers
* Ovaltine Malt Powdered Beverage Mix
* Betty Crocker Bac-O's Bacon Flavor Bits
* Old El Paso Taco Shells
* Jiffy Corn Muffin Mix

Source: Union of Concerned Scientists