Disinfection By-Products

Background

Characterization of DBPs

Fate and Transport of DBPs in the Environment

Monitoring in the Environment

Exposure Pathways

Reducing Exposure

References


Potential Health Effects

Haloacetic Acids

Chloroform

Chlorite

References

5103/5014 Home

References

1. Table HE: Potential Adverse Health Effects from high/long-term exposure to hazardous chemicals in drinking water. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/healtheffects.pdf.
2. National Toxicology Program Clinical Evaluation Committee Draft Report. (n.d.) Retrieved, December 2, 2003, from http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/main_pages/NTP_ALL_STDY_PG.html.
3. Information Profile for NIEHS Nominations of Chemicals to the National Toxicology Program [Dibromoacetic Acid]. June 27, 1996. Retrieved from http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/cgi/iH_Indexes/Res_Stat/iH_Res_Stat_Frames.html.
4. NTP Factsheets Safe Drinking Water Program. (2002). Retrieved from http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/liason/factsheets/DrinkingWaterFacts.html.
5. Brominated Acetic Acids (WHO). (n.d.) Retrieved, December 2, 2003, from http://www.who.int/docstore/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/ draftchemicals/brominatedaceticacids2003.pdf.
6. Dichloroacetic acid (CASRN 79-43-6). September 11, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0654.htm.
7. Chlorinated Acetic Acids (WHO). (n.d.) Retrieved, December 2, 2003, from www.who.int/docstore/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/ draftchemicals/Chlorinatedaceticacids2003.pdf.
8. Kim H., Haltmeier P., Klotz J.B., and Weisel C.P. Evaluation of biomarkers of environmental exposures: urinary HAAs associated with ingestion of chlorinated drinking water. Envir Res 1999: 80: 185-195
9. EPA Toxicological Review of Chloroform, October 2001,http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/0025-tr.pdf
10. Health Risk Assessment/Characterization of the Drinking Water Disinfection Byproduct Chloroform, Prepared by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment, under the direction of the EPA, November 4, 1998, http://www.tera.org/news/chloroform.pdf
11. Risk Assessment Case Study – Chloroform and Related Substances, J. Fawell, Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (2000) S91-S95
12. ILSI Europe Workshop on Assessing Health Risks from Environmental Exposure to Chemicals: the Example of Drinking Water, Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (2000) S3-S12
13. EPA Toxicological Review of Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorite, September 2000,http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/0025-tr.pdf
14. Van Leeuwen, F.X.R, Safe Drinking Water: the Toxicologist’s Approach, Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (2000) S51-S58
15. US EPA (1997): Water on Tap: A Consumer’s Gude to the Nation’s Drinking Water, EPA 815-K-97-002, Washington, http://www.epa.gov/safewater/wot/wtrontap.pdf

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