Disinfection By-Products


Characterization of DBPs

Fate and Transport of DBPs in the Environment

Monitoring in the Environment

Exposure Pathways

Reducing Exposure


Potential Health Effects

Haloacetic Acids




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1. Table HE: Potential Adverse Health Effects from high/long-term exposure to hazardous chemicals in drinking water. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/healtheffects.pdf.
2. National Toxicology Program Clinical Evaluation Committee Draft Report. (n.d.) Retrieved, December 2, 2003, from http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/main_pages/NTP_ALL_STDY_PG.html.
3. Information Profile for NIEHS Nominations of Chemicals to the National Toxicology Program [Dibromoacetic Acid]. June 27, 1996. Retrieved from http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/cgi/iH_Indexes/Res_Stat/iH_Res_Stat_Frames.html.
4. NTP Factsheets Safe Drinking Water Program. (2002). Retrieved from http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/liason/factsheets/DrinkingWaterFacts.html.
5. Brominated Acetic Acids (WHO). (n.d.) Retrieved, December 2, 2003, from http://www.who.int/docstore/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/ draftchemicals/brominatedaceticacids2003.pdf.
6. Dichloroacetic acid (CASRN 79-43-6). September 11, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0654.htm.
7. Chlorinated Acetic Acids (WHO). (n.d.) Retrieved, December 2, 2003, from www.who.int/docstore/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/ draftchemicals/Chlorinatedaceticacids2003.pdf.
8. Kim H., Haltmeier P., Klotz J.B., and Weisel C.P. Evaluation of biomarkers of environmental exposures: urinary HAAs associated with ingestion of chlorinated drinking water. Envir Res 1999: 80: 185-195
9. EPA Toxicological Review of Chloroform, October 2001,http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/0025-tr.pdf
10. Health Risk Assessment/Characterization of the Drinking Water Disinfection Byproduct Chloroform, Prepared by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment, under the direction of the EPA, November 4, 1998, http://www.tera.org/news/chloroform.pdf
11. Risk Assessment Case Study – Chloroform and Related Substances, J. Fawell, Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (2000) S91-S95
12. ILSI Europe Workshop on Assessing Health Risks from Environmental Exposure to Chemicals: the Example of Drinking Water, Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (2000) S3-S12
13. EPA Toxicological Review of Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorite, September 2000,http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/0025-tr.pdf
14. Van Leeuwen, F.X.R, Safe Drinking Water: the Toxicologist’s Approach, Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (2000) S51-S58
15. US EPA (1997): Water on Tap: A Consumer’s Gude to the Nation’s Drinking Water, EPA 815-K-97-002, Washington, http://www.epa.gov/safewater/wot/wtrontap.pdf

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