Childhood Asthma/Tobacco Smoke



Fate and Transport

Exposure Pathway

Methods for Monitoring in the Environment

Methods for Measuring Human Exposure

Strategies for Preventing or Controlling Exposure

Respiratory Harmful Effects

Deposition, Absorption, and Metabolism

Dose-Response Relationship

Organ Sites of Toxicity


Risk Assessment/Risk Management Considerations


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Ayres, P.H., McKarns, S.C., Coggins, C.R., Doolittle, D.J., Sagartz, J.E. et al. (1995). Replicative DNA synthesis in tissues of the rat exposed to aged and diluted sidestream smoke. Inhalation Toxicology, 7: 1225-1246.

Boers, J.E., Ambergen, A.W., Thunnissen, F.B. (1999). Number and proliferation of clara cells in normal human airway epithelium. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 159 (5 Pt 1): 1585-91.

Carty, CS., (1996). Nicotine and cotinine stimulate secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor and affect expression of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured human smooth muscle cells. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 24: 927-935.

Chen, Y. (1994). Environmental tobacco smoke, low birth weight and hospitalization for respiratory disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 150: 54-58.

Coggins, C.R., Ayres, P.H., Mosberg, A.T., Ogden, M.W., Sagartz, J.W., & Hayes, A.W. (1992). Fourteen-day inhalation study in rats, using aged and diluted sidestream smoke from a reference cigarette. I. Inhalation toxicology and histopathology. Fundamentals and Applied Toxicology, 19: 133-140.

Csoma, Z., Kharitonov, S.A., Balint, B., Bush, A., Wilson, N.M., & Barnes, P.J. (2002). Increased leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate in childhood asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 166: 1345-1349.

Finkelstein, E., Nardini, M., and van der Vliet, A. (2001). Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis by acrolein: a mechanism of tobacco-related lung disease. Americal Journal of Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 281: 732-739.

Gebremichael, A., Chiang, A.M., Buckpitt, A.R., Plopper, C.G., & Pinkerton, K.E. (1995). Postnatal development of cytochrome P4501A1 and 2B1 in rat lung and liver: effect of aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 135: 246-253.

Ji, C.M., Plopper, C.G., Witschi, H., & Pinkerton, K.E. (1994). Exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke alters bronchiolar epithelial cell differentiation in the postnatal rat lung. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molelucular Biology, 11: 312-320.

Lee, C.D., Brown, B.G., Reed, E.A., Coggins, C.R., Doolittle, D.J., & Hayes, A.W. (1993). Ninety-day inhalation study in rats, using aged and diluted sidestream smoke from a reference cigarette: DNA adducts and alveolar macrophage cytogenetics. Fundamentals and Applied Toxicology, 20: 393-401.

Rajini, P., & Witschi, H.P. (1994). Short-term effects of sidestream smoke on respiratory epithelium in mice: cell kinetics. Fundamentals and Applied Toxicology, 22: 405-410.

Shahid, S.K., Kharitonov, S.A., Wilson, N.M, Bush, A., & Barnes, P.J. (2002). Increased interleukin-4 and decreased interferon-y in exhaled breath condensate of children with asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 165: 1290-1293.

Shijubo, N., Itoh, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Shibuya, Y., Morita, Y., Hirasawa, M., Okutani, R., Kawai, T., & Abe, S. (1997). Serum and BAL Clara cell 10 kDa protein (CC10) levels and CC10-positive bronchiolar cells are decreased in smokers. European Respiratory Journal, 10: 1108-1114.

von Meyerinck, L., Scherer, G., Adlkofer, F., Wenzel-Hartung, R., Brune, H., & Thomas, C. (1989). Exposure of rats and hamsters to sidestream smoke from cigarettes in a subchronic inhalation study. Experimental Pathology, 37: 186-189.

Warke, T.J., Fitch, P.S., Brown, V., Taylor, R., Lyons, J.D.M., Ennis, M., & Shields, M.D. (2002). Exhaled nitric oxide correlates with airway eosinophils in childhood asthma. Thorax, 57: 383-387.

Witschi, H. & Rajini, P. (1994). Cell kinetics in the respiratory tract of hamsters exposed to cigarette sidestream smoke. Inhalation Toxicology, 6: 321-333.

Witschi, H., Joad, J.P., & Pinkerton, K.E. (1997). The toxicology of environmental tobacco smoke. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 37: 29-52.

1992 EPA Report: Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking (Also Known As Exposure To Secondhand Smoke Or Environmental Tobacco Smoke - ETS)

1997 California EPA Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) Report: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke