Childhood Asthma/Tobacco Smoke

Introduction

Characteristics

Fate and Transport

Exposure Pathway

Methods for Monitoring in the Environment

Methods for Measuring Human Exposure

Strategies for Preventing or Controlling Exposure


Respiratory Harmful Effects

Deposition, Absorption, and Metabolism

Dose-Response Relationship

Organ Sites of Toxicity

Biomarkers

Risk Assessment/Risk Management Considerations

References

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Methods for Monitoring Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in the Environment

  • The concentration of any individual or group of ETS constituents in an enclosed space is a function of:
    o generation rate of the compounds of the contaminants
    o source consumption rate
    o ventilation or infiltration rate
    o concentration of contaminants of interest in the ventilation or infiltration air
    o degree to which the air is mixed
    o removal of the contaminants by surfaces or chemical transformations
    o effectiveness of the air cleaning device that may be in use

  • ETS monitored by using tracers a proxy contaminants as indicators of ETS. A marker or tracer for quantifying ETS concentrations should be:
    o Unique to the tobacco smoke
    o Constituent of the tobacco smoke in sufficient quantity
    o Similar in emission rates for a variety of tobacco products
    o In a fairly consistent ratio to the individual contaminant of interest under a range of environmental conditions encountered and for a variety of tobacco products

  • Note: It is very difficult to measure ETS in environment because hard to find tracers that meet the criteria listed above. A list of caveats:
    o representatives of the air contaminant measured in total ETS in space may be unknown,
    o proxy air contaminant may have other sources besides ETS,
    o may not know smoking rates or numbers of smokers,
    o may not know building filtration/air exchange rates
    o difficult because compounds present in both vapor and particulate phases, eg. nicotine, may not know how much in each phase since varies depending on length of time in air