Acrylamide

Characteristics

Uses

Environmental Transport

Environmental Deposition

Methods for Monitoring in the Environment

Methods for Monitoring Human Exposure

Safeguards Against Acrylamide Exposure


Harmful Effects

Dose Response

Absorption, Distribution and Metabolism

Primary Sites for Toxicity

Biomarkers

Mechanism of Action

Risk Assessment and Management

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Acrylamide Policy

Introduction to Policy

Decision Makers and Stakeholders

Current Policy

Policy Recommendations


References

PRIMARY SOURCES OF DATA:

1.) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Ground Water and Drinking Water. http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/dwh/t-voc/acrylamide.html,
2.) www.speclab.com/compound/c79061.htm
3.) Journal of Chromatographic Sciences. Volume 37, Number 7. 07/1999. pp. 240-244. http://www.j-chrom-sci.com/abstracts/1999/july/240-andrawes
4.) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Plant and Dairy Foods & Beverages. 06/20/02. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/acrylami.html
5.) The Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 10/03/03. http://ejeafche.uvigo.es/1(3)2002/00113200F.htm
6.) Klaassen, Curtis D. 2001. Cassarett & Doull’s Toxicollogy, The basic science of poisions. Sixth edition. McGraw Hill Publishing Co.
7.) Chemical Summary for Acrylamide. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. September 1994.
8.) http://mindfully.org/Pesticide/2002/Polyacrylamide-Soil-Pesticide
9.) http://www.fwr.org/waterq/fr0119.htm
10.) Health effects of occupational exposure to acrylamide. J.Environmental Health, 2001, 27, 219-226.
11.) Detection and Quantitation of Acrylamide in Foods EPA Draft.
12. TOXNET : Acrylamide
13. NIOSH Criteria Documents : Criteria for a Recommended Standard - Occupational Exposure to Acrylamide
14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) : Chemical Summary for Acrylamide
15. Norwegian Food Control Authority : Risk Assessment of Acrylamide Intake from Foods with Special Emphasis on Cancer Risk
16. European Commission : Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on New Findings regarding the Presence of Acrylamide in Food
17. Igisu H, Goto I, Kawamura Y, Kata M, Izumi K, Kuroiwa Y. (1975). “ Acrylamide encephalopathy due to well water pollution.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 38:581-54.
18. Abramson-Zetterberg L., March 2003. “The Dose-response Relationship at Very Low Doses of Acrylamide is Linear in the Flow Cytometer-based Mouse Micronucleus Assay”. Mutat Res Vol 535(2):215-22.
19. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Integrated Risk Information System, Acrylamide (CASRN 79-06-1)
20. Harvard School of Public Health: “Study Shows Acrylamide in Baked and Fried Foods Does Not Increase Risk of Certain Cancers in Humans”, January 2003.
21. Norwegian Food Control Authority: “Assessment of Cancer Risk Due to Acrylamide Intake From Coffee Consumption”, December 2002.
22. Norwegian Food Control Authority: “Risk Assessment of Acrylamide Intake From Cereal-Based Baby Foods”, December 2002.
23. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General-European Food Safety Authority: “Acrylamide-EU Summary of Activities, Study Area 3-Ways to Reduce Levels of Acrylamide in Foods”, December 2003.
24. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Proposition 65-State’s Qualified Experts: “Proposed Acrylamide Work Plan”
25. National Food Processors Association: “California’s Prop 65 Acrylamide Warnings Veer Off Course From Sound Science”
26. FDA-CFSAN, Food Advisory Sub-Committee Meeting: “Toxicology Component of FDA’s Action Plan for Acrylamide”, December 4 and 5, 2002.
27. Klaassen, Curtis D. 2001. Cassarett & Doull’s Toxicology, The basic science of poisons. Sixth edition. McGraw Hill Publishing Co.
28. Bear, Mark F. Connors, Barry W. Paradiso, Michael A. 2001. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Second edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Publishing Co.
29. He, F, S Zhang, H Wang, et.al (1989). “Neurological and electroneuromyographic assessment of the adverse health effects of acrylamide on occupational exposed workers.” Scand. J. Work Environ Health. 15: 125-129.
30. Johnson, KA, SJ Gorzinski, KM Bodner, et.al (1986). “Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study on acrylamide incorporated in drinking water of 344 Fischer rats.” Toxicology Appl. Pharmacol. 85(2): 154-168
31. Friedman, M, L Dulak and M Stedham (1995). “A lifetime of ocogenicity study in rats with acrylamide.” Fundam Appl Toxicol 27: 95-105
32. Miller, MJ, DE Carter and IG Sipes (1982). “Pharmacokinetics of Acrylamide in Fischer-344 Rats.” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 63: 36-44.
33. Barber, DS, JR Hunt, MR Ehrich, et.al. (2001). “Metabolism, toxicokinetics and hemoglobin adduct formation in rats following subacute and subchronic Acrylamide dosing.” Neurotoxicology 22: 341-353.
34. Dixit, R, Husain, H Mukhtar, et.al. (1981b). “Acrylamide Induced Inhibition of Hepatic Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity in Rats.” Toxicology Letters. 7: 207-210.
35. Overview of Acrylamide Toxicity and Metabolism. October 2002.
36. Acrylamide Index. June 1999.

45. Dr. Alan S. Felsot. “Acrylamide angst, another annoying distraction about food safety”, Environmental Toxicologist, WSU
46. Rochelle W. Tyl a,*, Marvin A. Friedman b.”Effects of acrylamide on rodent reproductive performance.” Reproductive Toxicology 2003;17 1–13
47. Damjanov I, Friedman MA. “Mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis of Fischer 344 (F344) rats treated with acrylamide.” In Vivo 1998;12:495–502.
48. Crump KS. Ruston, LA. “Mechanism of acrylamide induction of benign mammary fibroadenomas in the aging female Fischer 344 rat: relevance to human health risk assessment.” The K.S. Crump Group; 1999; p. 1–33.
49. Johnson KA, Gorzinski SJ, Bodner KM, Campbell RA, Wolf CH,Friedman MA, et al. “Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study on acrylamide incorporated in the drinking water of Fischer 344 rats.” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1986;85:154–68. Res Toxicol 1992;5:81–9.
50. Bull RJ, Robinson M, Stober JA. “Carcinogenic activity of acrylamide in the skin and lung of Swiss-ICR mice.” Cancer Lett 1984;24:209–12.
51. Dearfield K, Douglas L, George R, Ehling UH, Moore MM, Sega GA, et al. “Acrylamide: a review of its genotoxicity and an assessment of heritable genetic risk.” Mutat Res 1995;330:71–99.
52. http://www.restaurant.org/government/issues/acrylamide.cfm
53. www.cfsan.fda.gov
54. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. U.D. Food and Drug Administration. “FDA Action Plan for Acrylamide in Food.” March 2004.
55. Center for Science in the Public Interest. “Petition to Establish Interim Acceptable Levels for Acrylamide in Major Food Sources.” June 4, 2003.