Acrylamide

Characteristics

Uses

Environmental Transport

Environmental Deposition

Methods for Monitoring in the Environment

Methods for Monitoring Human Exposure

Safeguards Against Acrylamide Exposure


Harmful Effects

Dose Response

Absorption, Distribution and Metabolism

Primary Sites for Toxicity

Biomarkers

Mechanism of Action

Risk Assessment and Management

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Acrylamide Policy

Introduction to Policy

Decision Makers and Stakeholders

Current Policy

Policy Recommendations


References

ENVIRONMENTAL DEPOSITION:

Atmospheric fate: Acrylamide’s low vapor pressure, (0.007 mmHg @ 20&Mac176;C), causes the compound to reacts rapidly in photochemical degradation processes producing hydroxyl radicals, having a half-life of 6hrs approx. Acrylamide’s low Henry’s Law Constant of 302x10-10atm m3 /mol prevents the monomer from disassociating with airborne particulates and being incorporated into rainfall.

Aquatic fate: Acrylamide’s highest mobility as a compound is perhaps in its aqueous state. In low oxygen environments, such as underground karst aquifers, acrylamide may travel long distances. In the pressance of oxygen, as in natural river systems, acrylamide has been found to degrade in 8 to 12 days. Minimal bioaccumulation in fish and other natural river / lake fauna has been documented with acrylamide in regards to releases in high oxygen environments.

Aqueous environments with short holding times have shown to prevent complete degradation of acrylamide. Sewage treatment ponds and water treatment facilitys have been targeted as sources of high acrylamide effluents in recent past.

Terrestrial fate: Acrylamide has a very high rate of leaching potiental within soils. Biodegradation typically occurs within 2 week of deposition by microorganisims. In systems with hostile environments to microorganisims, degradation is severly impared and accumulation in upper vadose sediment is more prevalent.

Acrylamide, when deposited, as its non-polymerized form in areas of active plant growth, will be polymerized within plant physiological processes and in the polymerized form, biodegrades to acrylamide.